20

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20, High Street.

This shop was about twice the size of No. 19.

For about 73 years, Nos. 19 & 20 were combined and run as Kendrick’s shoe shop. The premises were badly affected by the fire of 1897:

‘The shop and house occupied by Messrs. Kendrick & Son, boot and shoe dealers, which stood next to Cash & Co’s, were fiercely attacked by the flames, but again and again the fire was driven back. While the buildings were saved as a whole, considerable damage was done to the roof and upper portions of the premises, and undoubtedly much more was caused by the immense volume of water that was poured onto the place. The gable end looked, at the time of writing, to be in a dangerous condition; and though it was standing it seemed as though it would bulge still further out and eventually fall. If this event were to happen, it is quite possible that the front of the shop might give way and fall outwards. Damage, though apparently not very great, was done at Mr. Bray’s pianoforte warehouse and Messrs. Le Grice Bros’ drapery establishment. Both caught fire about the upper portion, but the flames were extinguished.’

 c1836 – (John Mussett)

In White’s directory for 1836, John Mussett is listed as a ‘beer house keeper’ at No. 20. In the same directory, Thomas Kendrick is listed here as a boot and shoe maker. In the census entries for the Mussett family, it becomes clear that the brewery business was carried on in premises at the rear of No. 20, accessed from what became known as ‘Bray’s Yard’.

John Mussett was born in Norfolk in about 1781 and was living in premises in the yard here in 1841 with his wife Alice (born c1786 in Norfolk) and their son John, born in about 1820 in Lynn, who was working as a brewer’s labourer for his father. John Mussett snr. died in 1849 and Alice died in 1855. The business was taken over by John Mussett jnr. He married Caroline Cobb c1845/6 and they had one son, Alexander William, born in Lynn in 1847. Tragically, Caroline died in 1850.  John married again in 1853, to Eliza Barber and they had a son, also named John, born c1859. In 1861, John was still running the brewery, employing one man and a boy, and the address of their home was 3, Bray’s Yard. John’s son Alexander moved to Sunderland where he married and took a job as a fireman. His father John gave up the brewery business and moved to live next door to him in Hood Street, Monkwearmouth and became a colliery labourer.

John Mussett died between 1891 and 1901 and Eliza died in 1920, aged 89.

 c1836 – c1850 (Thomas Kendrick) (See also Nos. 19-20)

For fourteen years or so, No. 20 was the shop of Thomas Kendrick, a boot and shoe maker. He was listed at this address in White’s Directory for 1836 but in advertisements in the Lynn Advertiser in 1852 he stated that he had been trading for ‘upwards of 22 years’. It would seem that he had started out in premises in Tower Street because there was a report in the Norwich Mercury for 14th August 1830 that the windows in his shop there had been broken during a violent thunderstorm. By 1831, he had moved to St. James’s Street, where he was living when his first child, Thomas jnr. was baptised on 17th January that year.

Thomas Kendrick was born in Wisbech in about 1796. Records of his first marriage have not been confirmed but it is believed that he may have married Mary Fayer at St. Bride Fleet Street on 21st June, 1829. He and Mary had twelve children all living in 1850, according to Mary’s death notice in the Norfolk News of 16th March that year. The following thirteen children, all born in Lynn have been verified:-

1) Thomas jnr. – emigrated to USA in 1855 – (b. 15/04/1830). 2) Benjamin Jacob (b. 28/11/1831). 3) Mary (b. 04/05/1833). 4) George – succeeded to the business – see Nos. 19 – 20 – (b. 09/08/1834 – m. Mary Boutwood in 1863 – d. 13/01/1917, aged 82). 5) Harriet (b. 08/01/1836 – presumably died in infancy). 6) Harriet (b. 23/05/1837 – m. Robert Wilson Fysh in 1863 – d. 1928, aged 91). 7) Martha – a milliner – (b. c1839 – m. John Rackham in 1900 – d. 1912, aged 73). 8) Hannah – a draper’s assistant in 1871 – (b. c1840). 9) Joseph (b. c1843). 10) Daniel (b. 1844). 11) Elizabeth Ann (b. c1847). 12) Margaret Maria (b. 1848). 13) Emma – a ladies’ outfitter – (b. c1850 – m. Edward Afford in 1872 and Thomas Frewer in 1898 – d. 1915, aged about 65).

Thomas’s wife Mary died on 26th March, 1850 after a long illness, at the age of 42. In Slater’s Directory for that year, the business was listed at Nos. 19 and 20.

After the death of his first wife, Thomas Kendrick married Louisa Barker on 27th August, 1851, but she died very suddenly on 17th February, 1852, aged 43. He then married Ann Langford (b. 11/08/1814 in Lynn) on 13th October, 1852 at St. Nicholas’ church. Ann was the daughter of William Langford, one of Lynn’s best-known chemists and druggists. Ann was born on 11th August, 1814 and baptised at St. Margaret’s church in September, at which date William Langford had his druggist’s shop on High Street but the address is not known. William Langford still had a shop on High Street in 1822 (Pigot) together with another in Norfolk Street.

All of Thomas and Mary’s children were given a good education and encouraged to make their own way in the world. Hannah, born in about 1841, found employment with John Thorley at his drapery business at 12, High Street. Margaret Maria, born in 1848, spent about 20 years in America before returning to live in Bury St. Edmunds, where she acted as housekeeper to her step-mother Ann for some years. Margaret never married and was the last of Thomas Kendrick’s family to die, in 1930 at the age of 81.

Thomas Kendrick died in 1863, aged about 67, and the business passed to his son George, in whose name it was listed in Harrod’s Directory for 1868, together with the millinery business of his wife, Mary (née Boutwood). More about George Kendrick may be found at Nos. 19 – 20, High Street.

In 1881 Ann Kendrick, Thomas’s widow, was living here at No. 20.

On 31st July, 1886, Cash & Co., were advertising in the Lynn Advertiser from No. 20, High Street: ‘CASH & CO. For SOLID BOOTS and LEATHER SHOES 20, HIGH STREET, LYNN. Single Pairs at WHOLESALE PRICES’.

This was still the business of George Kendrick, who had joined the Cash & Co. chain and the Kendrick name and the sign of ‘The Golden Slipper’ continued to be used. The following advertisement appeared in the Lynn Advertiser on 10th December, 1887:

‘The Golden Slipper. BOOT AND SHOE WAREHOUSE 19 & 20, HIGH STREET, KING’S LYNN, G. KENDRICK & SON’.

More details of the Kendrick family will be found under Nos. 19 – 20, High Street.

c1854 – c1872 (Henry Spencer) (George Spencer)

Parts of the premises were let out by the Kendricks for many years and White’s directory for 1854 has three listings for Henry Spencer here at No. 20 as a ‘basket maker / dealer’, as a ‘fancy depository’, and as a ‘smallwear dealer’. Henry is listed at No. 8½ in Harrod’s directory for 1863.

Henry was born in about 1807 In Holborn, Middlesex. He married Eliza Towell, from Thorpland in Norfolk, in 1843/4 in Lynn, this being his second marriage.

George was Henry’s son by his first marriage. Henry had premises at No. 101½ and more will be found about his family under that address.

Harrod’s Directory for 1868 has George Spencer here at No. 20, as a ‘Sheffield & Birmingham warehouseman’.  He and his wife Maria were living here in 1871, although the numbering in the census is not consistent and goes in the order 18, 20, 19, 21.

George Spencer was born in Middlesex, London, in about 1842, and appears to have stayed in London with his uncle and aunt for a few years before following his father Henry to King’s Lynn. He had arrived here by 1869/70 when he married Maria Hourston. Maria was born in Downham, Norfolk c1838, her father being Thomas Hourston, a tailor in High Street, Downham. George and Maria were living here on census night in 1871 when Henry, now a ‘proprietor of houses’ was visiting his granddaughter, Eliza (born August 1870).

George and Maria had four children, all born in Lynn:-

1) James – a grocer’s manager in 1911 – (b. c1863 – m. Kate c. 1896). 2) Eliza – (b. 1870 – m. Frank Gooch Morfey in 1900 – d. 1945, aged 75). 3) Henry – a grocer – (b. 14/11/1871 – m. Ethel Julia Perks in 1910). 4) George (b. 1872 – died in infancy).

George Spencer died in 1872, aged 30, and Maria moved to London Road, Lynn with her children. Maria’s aged mother and aunt and her spinster sister moved in with her, all living off their own means at 39, London Road. Maria then moved to Whitefriars Road and was living there with her two children in 1891 and was still there in1901.

c1883 – c1912 (Cash & Co.)

By 1883, the business had become one of the Cash & Co. chain (they had another High Street branch at No. 87), but still advertised under the Kendrick name. George’s son, George Edward Boutwood Kendrick (see Nos. 19 – 20, High Street) was now at the helm and he is listed as living here (at Nos. 19 & 20) in 1911. He retired and moved away from Lynn in 1919 and the property reverted into two separate shops, at some time after that date. However, by 1922, Lennards Ltd., boot and shoe makers had opened at 20 and by 1934 had expanded into No. 19.

In 1891 the manager of Cash & Co’s shop was John H. Booth, born c1869 at Paddington, who was living here with his widowed mother Emma.

 c1912 (G. M. Hartley Ltd) (also at Nos. 5-7 and 119)

At No. 20b in Kelly’s directory for 1912, G. M. Hartley Ltd., milliners, are listed here. Mrs. Gertrude May Hartley is also listed at No. 7, where she had a baby linen shop. In 1916, only the establishment at No. 7 is listed and by 1922 she had expanded into No. 6, High Street. A full account of her business is given under Nos. 5 – 7, High Street.

1920 – c1926 (The Cash Wallpaper Co. Ltd.)

By the end of 1920, the Cash Wallpaper Co. Ltd. had opened a branch at No. 20, High Street. On 10th December, 1920 they advertised in the Lynn News:

‘WALLPAPER PATTERNS FREE. If you are unable to see our windows at 20 HIGH STREET, KING’S LYNN, write to us, and we will forward Free Patterns to enable you to make a selection at home. (Please state rooms paper required for). We find this offer has been much appreciated in all the other towns we have branches, as it enables all the members of the family to express their opinions. WRITE NOW. CASH WALLPAPER Co., Ltd.’

In addition to wallpaper, they sold rugs and easy chairs. They stayed here until the middle of 1926, when their lease expired.

c1922 – c1973 (Lennards Ltd.)

By 1922, Lennards Lt., boot and shoe makers had opened a branch at No. 20. They later expanded into No. 19, where they are listed in the directories from 1934 to 1951. In Kelly’s directories from 1954 to 1973 they are listed at No. 20.

There were five Lennard brothers from Leicester who were involved in the boot and shoe industry:-

1) John (1845-1920). 2) William (1847 – 1924). 3) Samuel (05/06/1851 – 14/09/1901). 4) Henry (Harry) (1857 – ). 5) Thomas Joseph – later Sir Thomas (04/07/1861 – 01/06/1938).

Their parents were Frederick Lennard (sometimes Frederic but Frederick on his marriage certificate) and Mary Gant. Mary was born in Mulbarton, Norfolk, in 1821, the daughter of William Gant, who later became a silk weaver in Norwich. She had been working as a servant to a manufacturer living in Botolph Street, St. Augustine, Norwich when she married Frederick at St. Augustine’s Church on 31st December, 1843. He was a ‘machine maker’ at that date, and his father, Samuel Lennard was a ‘needle maker’. Mary and Frederick’s eldest son John was born in Norwich and became a teacher. The family moved from Norwich and were living in Leicester in 1851, when Frederick was working as a ‘framesmith’ (a framesmith made hosiery on a machine and was one of the key workers in the industry, also being responsible for setting up and maintaining the machine).

By 1881, Samuel jnr. was running a boot manufacturing company that employed 220 people. He had become head of the family, aged 29, following his father’s death. He was living at Humberstone, Leicester with his mother. His brother Henry had moved to Westbury-upon-Trym, Bristol and was also a boot and shoe manufacturer.

Thomas Lennard was educated both privately and at public schools and started working as a boot manufacturer in 1877. The retail side of the business commenced soon afterwards with the opening of a shop in High Street, Bristol.

In 1887 he formed Lennard Brothers, boot and shoe makers in Bristol and that same year exhibited at the International Exhibition at Melbourne, Australia, being awarded a gold medal. Thomas was an extremely hard worker and at the time of his retirement as company chairman in 1926, he stated that he did not think ‘the longer hours worked fifty years ago were injurious to health’ – 12 hours per day were the minimum in his case – but travelling an average of 50,000 miles by train every year for 20 consecutive years was a ‘strain’. In addition to his regular visits to Lennards’ shops around the country, he travelled extensively on the continent and throughout the world. Lennards had a considerable chain of retail outlets in other countries and enjoyed a world-wide reputation. Thomas’s declared main aim was to ‘give the best British value to our customers all over the world’. In acknowledgement that people spent most of their waking lives at the workplace, he considered that ‘the workroom should be the Place Beautiful’. The company’s buildings were designed to reflect this aim, the headquarters (right) in Queen’s Road, Bristol being quite impressive. The factory that stood on Eastern Boulevard in the city was built in 1918-1919 to the design of H. H. Thompson and featured a small replica of the Statue of Liberty. Apparently the directors of the company visited New York in 1920 and were so taken by the statue that they commissioned the copy for their building, which they named ‘The Liberty Building’.  Thomas also felt a duty towards providing proper holidays and pensions for his employees and the company provided a holiday home at Weston-super-Mare for the benefit of their workforce.   At one time or another all four of his brothers acted as partners, John giving up his teaching to join the company. Thomas described Sam as being ‘brilliant’ and John as ‘a gentleman of the old school’. In November 1896, Thomas acquired retail outlets from his brother Samuel, and Lennards Limited was established. The following year Thomas moved to Bristol to live. The company headquarters were moved from Leicester to Bristol in 1900. He remained managing director until 1922, when he stepped down and embarked on a three-month motor tour of Europe, returning to continue as company chairman and, in 1924, president. He was made a Knight’s Bachelor in the Colonial Office list announced in June 1920, being Vice-President of the Royal Colonial Society and founder chairman of the Bristol branch. He married Edith Georgina Saunders in 1893. She was the daughter of Horace Edward Jay, a London banker, and the widow of Harold Ripley Saunders, who had died in 1891. Thomas and Edith did not have any children and he was delighted when his nephew Edward William Lennard (William’s son – born in 1888) entered the company, taking over as managing director in 1926.

Edith died in 1921, aged 62, and Sir Thomas married Miss Selma Nellie Spalding in November 1922. He died at his home in Devon on 1st June, 1938 at the age of 76.

c1975 – c1990 (Fogarty Fashions)

Fogarty Fashions had a shop here in the 1970s / 1980s.

 1991 (Yorkshire Bank)

A branch of the Yorkshire bank opened here in 1991.

The Yorkshire Bank had grown out of the West Riding Penny Savings Bank, founded by Colonel Edward Akroyd of Halifax in 1859.

In 1911 a consortium of banks (National Provincial, Westminster, William Deacons, Lloyds, Barclays and Glyn Mills) took over. Then in 1990, the National Australia Bank acquired it from the consortium. The Yorkshire and Clydesdale Banks are now part of CYBG plc (Clydesdale and Yorkshire Banking Group), which was formed by the National Australia Bank in February, 2016.

 c2007 (Hawkins Countrywide)